Netherlands General

The Netherlands, often referred to simply as Holland, is located in Northwestern Europe, bordered by Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest. It is known for its flat landscape, with nearly one-third of its territory lying below sea level.



The Netherlands has a temperate maritime climate influenced by its proximity to the North Sea. Summers are mild and humid, while winters are relatively cool with occasional frosts. Rainfall is distributed evenly throughout the year, with the wettest months typically being from October to February.


The Netherlands has a diverse range of flora and fauna, despite its relatively small size. Common animal species include rabbits, deer, foxes, and various bird species. The country’s wetlands and coastal areas are important habitats for migratory birds and marine life.

Longest Rivers

The two longest rivers in the Netherlands are the Rhine and the Meuse. The Rhine, originating in Switzerland, flows through Germany and the Netherlands before emptying into the North Sea. The Meuse, originating in France, also flows through Belgium before reaching the Netherlands and eventually joining the Rhine.

Highest Mountains

The Netherlands is known for its flat terrain, and it does not have any significant mountain ranges or peaks. The highest point in the country is Vaalserberg, which stands at just 322.7 meters (1,059 feet) above sea level.



The Netherlands has been inhabited since prehistoric times, with evidence of human settlement dating back to the Paleolithic era. The earliest known inhabitants were hunter-gatherers who lived in the region during the Ice Age.

Ancient Period

During the Roman period, the Netherlands was part of the Roman Empire’s frontier region known as Germania Inferior. Roman forts and settlements were established along the Rhine River, which served as the empire’s northern border.

Medieval Period

The medieval period saw the emergence of powerful feudal lords and the growth of trade and commerce in the region. The Dutch Golden Age, in the 17th century, marked a period of unprecedented prosperity, cultural achievement, and maritime dominance for the Dutch Republic.

Modern Age

The Netherlands played a significant role in the Age of Exploration and colonialism, establishing a vast overseas empire that included territories in Asia, Africa, and the Americas. The country also experienced periods of political turmoil, including the Eighty Years’ War for independence from Spain and the Napoleonic Wars.

Contemporary Era

In modern times, the Netherlands has emerged as a prosperous and progressive nation known for its commitment to social welfare, liberal values, and environmental sustainability. It is a founding member of the European Union and a leading global advocate for peace, human rights, and international cooperation.


The Netherlands has a population of approximately 17.5 million people, making it one of the most densely populated countries in Europe. The population is ethnically diverse, with significant communities of Dutch, Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese, and Indonesian descent.

Administrative Divisions

The Netherlands is divided into twelve provinces, each with its own distinct characteristics and administrative structure. These provinces are further subdivided into municipalities and water boards. Here is a list of the administrative divisions along with their respective populations:

  1. North Holland – Population: 2.8 million
  2. South Holland – Population: 3.7 million
  3. Utrecht – Population: 1.4 million
  4. Zeeland – Population: 383,000
  5. North Brabant – Population: 2.5 million
  6. Limburg – Population: 1.1 million
  7. Gelderland – Population: 2.1 million
  8. Overijssel – Population: 1.2 million
  9. Flevoland – Population: 426,000
  10. Friesland – Population: 650,000
  11. Groningen – Population: 585,000
  12. Drenthe – Population: 493,000

10 Largest Cities by Population

The largest cities in the Netherlands by population include:

  1. Amsterdam – Population: 872,000
  2. Rotterdam – Population: 651,000
  3. The Hague – Population: 539,000
  4. Utrecht – Population: 357,000
  5. Eindhoven – Population: 234,000
  6. Tilburg – Population: 226,000
  7. Groningen – Population: 234,000
  8. Almere – Population: 215,000
  9. Breda – Population: 184,000
  10. Nijmegen – Population: 177,000

Education Systems

Education in the Netherlands is compulsory for children aged 5 to 16 and is provided free of charge at both primary and secondary levels. The country has a well-developed education system, with a strong emphasis on individual development, critical thinking, and creativity.

Top Universities

The Netherlands is home to several prestigious universities, including the University of Amsterdam, Delft University of Technology, Leiden University, and Utrecht University. These institutions offer a wide range of undergraduate and postgraduate programs in various fields of study.


The Netherlands has an extensive and efficient transportation network, including roads, railways, waterways, and airports.


The Netherlands has several major airports, including:

  1. Amsterdam Airport Schiphol
  2. Rotterdam The Hague Airport
  3. Eindhoven Airport
  4. Groningen Airport Eelde
  5. Maastricht Aachen Airport


The Netherlands has a comprehensive railway network operated by Nederlandse Spoorwegen (NS), covering both domestic and international routes. The total length of the Dutch railway network is approximately 3,223 kilometers.


The Netherlands has a well-developed network of highways and roads, with major motorways connecting cities and regions across the country. The total length of the Dutch highway network is approximately 139,000 kilometers.


The Netherlands is home to several major ports, including:

  1. Port of Rotterdam – Europe’s largest port
  2. Port of Amsterdam
  3. Port of Antwerp (in Belgium)
  4. Port of Vlissingen
  5. Port of Groningen

Country Facts

  • Population: 17.5 million
  • Capital: Amsterdam (constitutional capital), The Hague (seat of government)
  • Official Language: Dutch
  • Religion: Predominantly Christianity (Roman Catholicism and Protestantism)
  • Race: Dutch (predominantly), with significant minority populations from former Dutch colonies
  • Currency: Euro (EUR)
  • ISO Country Codes: NL
  • International Calling Code: +31
  • Top-Level Domain: .nl