Austria. During the year, Austria got Europe's youngest
head of government in 31-year-old Sebastian Kurz, when his
People's Party (ÖVP) won the new election in October. The
conservative and Christian democratic ÖVP received 31.6% of
the vote, the Social Democratic SPÖ 26.9% and the right-wing
populist Freedom Party (FPÖ) 26%. According to
Countryaah.com, the Greens ended up out of
Parliament with just 3.9% of the vote.
It was in May that the newly elected leader of the ÖVP,
as well as the country's foreign minister, Sebastian Kurz
agreed with the Chancellor of the Interior and the SPÖ
leader Christian Kern to announce new elections this fall.
This since the ÖVP-SPÖ coalition has burst.
After the election, the newly elected Chancellor Kurz
looked far to the right and, at the end of October, invited
anti-xenophobic FPÖ and its leader Hans-Christian Strache to
talks about a possible government coalition. The Chancellor
promised that a functioning government would be in place
within two months. In December, Sebastian Kurz and his
conservative ÖVP then formed a coalition government together
with the right-wing populists FPÖ. Both parties joined,
among other things. to elections for a tighter migration
policy and less EU influence. The new government got several
FPÖ representatives on important posts: Herbert Kickl became
Minister of the Interior, Mario Kunasek Minister of Defense
and Karin Kneissl Foreign Minister and party leader
Heinz-Christian Strache who became Vice Chancellor.
In June, the trial started against eleven men charged
with murder, torture and smuggling. They are responsible for
the tragic incident in August 2015 when 71 refugees were
found dead in an abandoned truck on a motorway in Austria
near the Hungary border. The trial is taking place in
Hungary, where four of the men are charged with murder,
torture and smuggling, the other seven for torture and
There has been a ban on a comprehensive veil in Austria
since 1 October. It got a man who participated in an
advertising campaign dressed up for shark experience. He was
fined by the police a week after the ban was introduced,
after refusing to remove the shark mask with the motivation
"I just do my job".
Vienna, the capital of Austria; 1.8 million housing (2015; approximately 2.4
million in the metropolitan area), 415 km2, half of which are green
areas. The city of the Danube is a municipality with city council, divided into
23 Bezirke, Austria's smallest state with the Senate and surrounded by Lower
Vienna has experienced four periods of extraordinarily large construction
efforts. The first covers the time after the Ottomans' final defeat in 1683,
when the old town center was equipped with Baroque palaces.
Today, the historic center of Vienna is the area between the Danube Canal and
the pompous Ringstraße. It houses numerous churches and monasteries, public
buildings, banks and shops, as well as small houses in crooked alleys and in
2001 was designated the UNESCO World Heritage Site (see World Heritage List).
The second extension, immediately after the old fortifications were
demolished, gave way to Ringstraße and its splendid buildings in historical
styles from this Vienna's Founder's period in the latter half of the 1800's.
Ca. 2 km outside the Ringstraße, an outer ring street, Gürtel, has been
constructed, which in an arch connects them in the second half of the 1800's.
built railway stations, Franz Joseph Bahnhof, Westbahnhof and Südbahnhof.
Rote Wien is regarded as the third extension, which includes the period
1922-34, with large social housing such as the Werkbundsiedlung in Sankt Veit.
All this was crushed in 1934 by Dollfuß's fascist coup.
After 1945, for example, the major buildings include UNO-City with UN bodies
and the 252 m high television tower in Donaustadt. These include the
Hundertwasserhaus near the Danube Canal and concrete blocks, especially east of
the Danube, as well as outer suburban extensions to the west, towards the
Wienerwald and Lainzer Tiergarten.
For centuries, Vienna has been inundated with floods, which is why the
so-called Great Danube Regulation was implemented in the 1870's. Thus, the
original race, the Alte Danube, is today cut off and forms a long, curved lake.
It is replaced by two parallel canals, the Danube and the Neue Danube, separated
by the 22 km long and 200 m wide island of Danube Island with bathing beaches,
undeveloped and car-free.
In through Vienna, the Danube canal, which separates the city center from the
old camp quarters Brigittenau, the dilapidated residential town of Leopoldstadt
and the huge Prater area (see Prater) with amusement park with the 65 m high
Ferris wheel Riesenrad (1897), exhibition center, stadium and the largest green
Other parks are found along the Ring, at Schönbrunn and in other suburban
areas, especially to the north. The Jews have had a grim history in Vienna -
worst in the 1900's. Before World War II, it contained 185,000 Jews; after the
Nazi persecution 12,000.
Vienna's public transport had to be completely rebuilt after 1945 by tramways
and buses. In 1966, subways were added, and the city's public transport system
is today an extensive and dense network with, among other things. six
underground lines; more extensions are on the way.
Remote traffic is handled by the state highways and by Schwechat Airport 19
km SE of the city center. In terms of business, the city is dominated by public
offices, institutions and educational establishments, and by trade, finance and
private services in tourism and cultural services.
As a cultural center, Vienna has played a major role since the Middle Ages.
It is, first and foremost, one of the world's most important centers of
classical music. Musikverein, Wiener State Opera with the Vienna Philharmonic
and the Wiener Sängerknaben. There are museums for Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven,
Schubert and Johann Strauß, all living in the city, as well as several annual
music and theater festivals.
An artistic highlight was the years around 1900, when the city was home to
several fertile environments. Names like Otto Wagner, Josef Hoffmann, JM Olbrich
and Adolf Loos were particularly prominent in architecture, the Wiener
Werkstätte in the arts and Gustav Klimt, Egon Schiele and Oskar Kokoschka, etc.
in the field of visual arts.
Literature Karl Kraus became a critical speaker for several of the central
trends of the time through his journal Die Fackel. The final decades of the
empire from the 1880's to 1918 also became epoch-making in Vienna in the history
Gustav Mahler's music represented the transition from Late Romanticism to
Modernism, whose important arnested city was brought into force by the work of
Arnold Schönberg in particular, as well as his students Alban Berg and Anton