Greece. According to
Countryaah.com, Greece's strained economy recovered during the
year. But at the beginning of the year it looked bad; In a
new report from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the
EU's view of the Greek economy was based on "significantly
more optimistic assumptions" than those presented by the
IMF: in 2060, Greece's national debt would be 275% of GDP.
And in March, figures for the fourth quarter of 2016 showed
that GDP fell by 1.1%. But already in the same month, fresh
EU statistics showed that Greece had a government budget
surplus of 2-3% (excluding borrowing costs), and a month
later the figure had risen to 4.2% according to the European
Commission. The Reuters news agency therefore reported that
it was the first time in 21 years that Greece joined plus.
Lenders' claims on Greece were at 0.5% surplus.
Unemployment also fell to 22.5% during the year, which is
the lowest figure in five years. In September 2016, the
figure was record high, 27.9%.
Violent protests broke out in the capital of Athens in
mid-May in connection with the negotiations for new loans to
the country. It was the planned austerity measures (a demand
from the lenders) that got 10,000 people to gather on
Syntagmatorget outside Parliament on the same evening as the
austerity package would be approved. Violent clashes took
place between protesters (gasoline bombs) and police (tear
gas). The package was voted on by a slight margin, 153 of
the 300 members voted for the proposal, which included
reduced pensions and higher taxes from 2019/20. At the
beginning of July, the eurozone finance ministers agreed,
and a payment of € 8.5 billion from the latest emergency
package of 2015 was approved.
In July, the IMF approved yet another aid program for
Greece; this time at € 1.5 billion.
In January, Turkey threatened to terminate the refugee
agreement with Greece. This is unless the eight officers who
fled to Greece in a helicopter after the failed coup attempt
in July 2016 were handed over to Turkey. In the past, a
Greek court has ruled that the military cannot be
surrendered because they would not receive a fair trial in
Turkey. In December, a decision was made to grant one of the
officers asylum, which prompted Turkey to protest so loudly
that the Greek government appealed the court decision.
Two Swedes were sentenced in May to 15 years in prison
for membership in a terrorist organization. They were
arrested in Alexandroupolis near the border with Turkey with
military clothes, knives and money in the pack. According to
Greek authorities, they were on their way to Syria to join
the Islamic State (IS).
An earthquake struck in July in the archipelago of
Dodecanese in the southeastern part of the Aegean Sea, near
Turkey. A Swedish man in his 20s was killed on the tourist
island of Kos in connection with the quake. In addition, two
Swedes and one Norwegian were seriously injured.
Proof that the Greek economy is on the right track was
given in September when the EU removed the country from the
list of countries with a deficit exceeding 3% of GDP.
Remaining on the list are now France, Spain and the UK.
In November, central Greece was hit by heavy rains. The
worst hit was an area a few miles west of the capital,
including the industrial cities of Mandra, Megara and Néa
Péramos, where roads and cars were washed away and homes
flooded. At least 13 people were killed in the storm, which
was described by the Mayor of Mandra, Yianna Krikouki, to be
"by biblical standards".
The Greek antiquity
Greek antiquity, also referred to as ancient Greece,
ancient culture in the eastern Mediterranean. Greece was not
a unified state formation in ancient times, but consisted of
several hundred small states. In addition to today's Greece,
the coasts of Asia Minor, southern Italy and Sicily were
Greek core areas, and in classical times the Greek colonies
extended from Catalonia in the west to the inner Black Sea
in the east.
This article deals with the social life, culture and
history of ancient Greece, in the period from about the year
1000 BCE. and until about the birth of Christ.
Greek religion and culture have their roots partly in
religious notions the Indo-European tribes brought with them
as they wandered into the later Greek area, partly in myths
and rites which they acquired from the Greek population or
from other peoples whom they subsequently came into contact
The Greeks had no real priesthood. Much of the worship
was closely related to the family, and the significant
events in human life - birth, the transition to adulthood,
marriage and death - were associated with religious rites.
The state took care of the relationship with the gods by
building shrines, building temples, and holding regular
feasts with sacrifices as an important element.
Public cult was led by the Arkhunts or other annually
appointed officials, but such offices were sometimes
inherited by certain families. No sacred (canonical) writing
existed, but Homer's poem, which became the common property
of all Greeks, shaped the forms of the great gods as they
lived in people's consciousness, in poetry, and in fine art.
The first philosophers are the so-called Ionic natural
philosophers in the 500s BCE. The oldest we know the name of
was Thales from Milet who claimed that the water is the
source of all things.
In the city of Athens, sophists (teachers of rhetoric and
wisdom) laid the foundation for a breakthrough of philosophy
with its discussions of political and moral issues. Here
appeared Socrates at the end of the 400s, who, with his
in-depth questions about all things, became the
philosopher-ideal of later generations. Socrates left no
writings, but is known through his student Plato. Plato's
student Aristotle was more systematic and empirically
oriented. In his works he dealt with all the known sciences
of the time, including biology, aesthetics, ethics and
political philosophy. Many basic concepts in the natural
sciences can be traced back to him.
Epicurean, like around 300 BCE. founded a philosophical
school in Athens, gained great importance with his socrally
inspired moral philosophy. In the next centuries, there was
a variety of religious and philosophical speculation. New
Platonism and Stoicism are among the schools that sought to
create holistic views or systems.
Science in Greek antiquity is considered to be the basis
of European natural science. Science originated among the
great thinkers of Greece about 500-600 years before our
time. Thales from Milet is therefore considered to be the
West's first scientist and philosopher. Among other things,
he demonstrated that amber (electron in Greek)
attracted small particles, and with him and Pytagoras the
math was brought from the Orient to Greece.
Greek literature had a fundamental impact on European
culture. The Greeks created a number of literary forms that
have been inherited by the people of the cultural circle.
Figures and thoughts that we first encounter in Greek poetry
have become common property. The oldest Greek literary works
preserved are Homer's poem Iliad and the Odyssey.
Art and architecture
The actual Greek art is estimated from around the year
1000 BCE. The climax was reached in the heyday of Athens
during Pericles in the 4th century BCE. Classical Greek art
has later become a role model for European art.