Libya, according to Digopaul,
is a country located in Africa. The security situation in Libya remained unstable
and is now classified as one of the world's most dangerous
and violent countries. In addition to political and military
power struggles, jihadists and arms dealers have gained a
strong foothold, while Libya has become the center for human
smuggling into Europe. According to EU data at the beginning
of the year, nearly 1 million migrants and refugees were
living in Libya. Trade in these people has become an
industry last year generating $ 1.6 billion in Libya alone,
according to European Council President Donald Tusk.
In February, EU heads of state and government decided to
enter into an agreement with Libya's UN-backed government.
The agreement provided € 200 million in financial assistance
to combat smuggling activities and increase surveillance on
Libya's northern coast and southern land borders. The Libyan
coast guard would be strengthened to stop migrant and
refugee boats from crossing the Mediterranean to Europe.
Instead, the refugees and migrants would be taken to camps
in Libya, whose poor conditions, both the UN refugee agency
UNHCR and the International Refugee Organization IOM, would
receive financial support to improve. Even Italy, where most
of the refugees and migrants from Libya come, would receive
However, the refugee agreement was criticized in the
media as Libya has two rival governments and lacks
functioning authorities. According to newspaper reports, a
report by the EU border security agency Frontex showed that
the UN-backed government in Tripoli was infiltrated by
militia groups, human traffickers and criminals. According
to Frontex, several of the country's refugee camps were run
by these three groups. In addition, several of the country's
nearly 1,500 militia groups were suspected of making money
from smuggling refugees and migrants.
Human rights organizations have also criticized the EU's
refugee agreement. Several reports during the year testified
to abuse, sexual violence, blackmail and kidnapping of
migrants and refugees. According to the UN agency UNICEF, as
many as 20 people were crowded into the authorities' refugee
camps. At the same time, IOM reported that refugees and
migrants who had already paid smugglers money - were sold to
new human smugglers, of whom they were pressed for even more
money during the death threats. Many were also forced to
work under slave-like conditions. Several women and children
talked about sexual abuse.
In January, 70 wounded soldiers from General Khalifa
Haftar's Libyan National Army (LNA) were taken to the
Russian Federation for care, according to a military source.
Libya has two rival governments in which Haftar, who has
become one of Libya's heaviest military players, has strong
ties to one government with power over the eastern parts of
the country. Haftar, who has good relations with both Egypt
and the United Arab Emirates, has also recently become
closer to Moscow, which has troubled his opponents.
In March, the head of Russian security company RSB Oleg
Krinitsyn confirmed that a dozen of his employees were
operating weapons in an area in eastern Libya controlled by
The LNA-controlled Brak al-Shati air base in southern
Libya was attacked in May by a militia group allied with the
Tripoli government. In the clashes, more than 140 people
were killed, most of them LNA soldiers. The purpose of the
Milis Group was to expel Haftar's troops, but according to a
LNA spokesman, the soldiers had been summarily executed.
Civilians also fell victim to the attack, which received
sharp criticism from, among others, the UN.
In the same month, Egypt's air force carried out raids on
jihadist training camps in the Libyan city of Derna with the
help of forces loyal to General Khalifa Haftar. The attack
was a response to a previous IS attack on Copts in Egypt
when at least 28 people died.
Muammar al-Khadaffi's son Saif al-Islam al-Khadaffi was
released in June by the militia group Abu Bakr al-Sadiq
Brigade after the government of eastern Libya offered him
amnesty. Saif al-Islam al-Khadaffi has been detained in the
city of Zintan since 2011 and has been wanted by the
International Criminal Court (ICC), suspected of crimes
In a televised speech in July, General Khalifa Haftar
stated that Libya's second largest city of Benghazi was
freed from jihadists and Islamists after three years of
"fighting terrorism and its agents".
That same month, Libya's two rivals Fayez al-Sarraj and
General Khalifa Haftar met in Paris to discuss Libya's
future. According to a statement from French President
Emmanuel Macron's office, the leaders agreed on a ceasefire
and that new elections should be held as soon as possible.
In August, the Libyan navy ordered non-governmental
relief agencies to stay away from the waters off the coast.
The fleet said that the presence of the aid organizations
encouraged illegal migration and smuggling of people.
Shortly thereafter, among other organizations, Doctors
Without Borders withdrew their rescue efforts in the area,
after being attacked by the Libyan Coast Guard. The Italian
government, which has produced a code of conduct for aid
organizations in the Mediterranean, welcomed Libya's
In an attack on a roadblock south of Tripoli, at least
eleven people were beheaded in August in an act that the
terrorist group IS took.
Figures from the Italian Interior Ministry in November
indicated that the number of migrants from Libya to Italy
has fallen by 70% since July. The decline was the result of
a June settlement between Italy, the UN-backed government,
tribal leaders and, according to some Libyan sources, human
traffickers. The agreement meant that boats with migrants
would be prevented from leaving the coast.
Shocking images from a report by US broadcaster CNN
revealed in November how African migrants on their way to
Europe were sold as slaves at auctions in several
communities in Libya. The pictures in the report testify to
torture injuries to the migrants, which were sold for the
equivalent of SEK 3,300. The African Union (AU) demanded an
investigation into the "slave markets", which the union's
chief Alpha Condé described as "bad trading from another