Bosnia and Herzegovina. The six Western Balkan countries (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Albania, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia), not yet members of the EU, met in May at a summit in Brussels. However, only Montenegro and Serbia are currently holding formal EU negotiations. According to EU Foreign Minister Federica Mogherini, it is of great importance that the other countries should be closer to the EU, not least for security policy reasons.
A few weeks later, the foreign ministers from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Albania, Kosovo, Macedonia and Serbia gathered in Stockholm for a seminar on the EU integration of the Western Balkans.
At the end of June, a verdict in the Netherlands caused a great upset in Bosnia and Herzegovina. According to Countryaah.com, the Court had ruled that the Netherlands was only partially responsible for the Srebrenica massacre in 1995. The Dutch peacekeeping forces were charged with protecting the civilian population but did not provide sufficient protection for the 8,000 Muslim boys and men killed by Bosnian forces. According to the judgment, the Dutch state must pay damages to 350 families, which is insufficient according to the Srebrenica’s mothers organization. “The verdict is shameful. We will not accept it, ”said Munira Subašić, leader of the organization.
Ljubiša Beara, security commander of the Bosnian Serb army staff during the civil war in the mid-1990s, died in February in a German prison. He was convicted in 2010 by the Tribunal in The Hague for, among other things, genocide when he participated in the massacre in Srebrenica.
Finally, in August, the Russian Federation paid its debt to former Yugoslavia. The money, equivalent to SEK 565 million, was lent out in connection with the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and repaid to Bosnia and Herzegovina on August 8. The total now amounted to just over SEK 1 billion.
In late November, Bosnian Serb army leader Ratko Mladić got his verdict before the War Criminal Tribunal in The Hague (ICTY). He was sentenced to life in prison for crimes against humanity, genocide and war crimes, including the Srebrenica massacre (1995) and the four-year siege of Sarajevo (from 1992). Mladić was arrested in Serbia in May 2011 on a farm north of Belgrade under his name. One week later, the same court ordered Slobodan Praljak’s 20-year prison sentence for, among other things. war crimes against Bosniaks 1992–95. Praljak took poison (cyanide) before the tribunal and died shortly thereafter.
Sarajevo, capital (since 1945) of Bosnia and Herzegovina located on both sides of the Milačka River; 311,000 residents (2011). Since the 1992-95 war, many Croats and most Serbs have moved, while many Bosniaks have immigrated.
The town is situated at an altitude of 530-700 m, surrounded by mountains. Trebević (1629 m) and Ozren. It consists of an Oriental district and a growing modern part. Prior to the Bosnian-Serbian siege and the almost daily, massive bombing of 1992-95, it was the railway hub with the metallurgical, cement, textile, food and automotive industries. Since 1995, extensive reconstruction has been underway. The city, which has a tradition of making rugs and filigree, once again houses a university, a music academy, several museums and colleges. Sarajevo is the seat of the country’s parliament and of the country’s Muslim congregation, the Orthodox metropolitan and the Catholic archbishop.
Originally there was a castle occupied by the Ottomans in 1428. Sarajevo developed during Ottoman times into the most important city in Bosnia, although the governor was usually located in Travnik. During the Austro-Hungarian occupation 1878-1918, the city was the seat of government, and this is where the Austro-Hungarian heir to the throne Francis Ferdinand was assassinated by a Serbian student 06.28.1914, the event that triggered World War 1. As host of the 1984 Winter Olympics, it gained a boost and became a leading winter sports center.
The city was hit hard by the war between Serbs, Croats and Bosniaks. It was divided into a central part under the control of the Bosnian government, while some Serbs and suburbs were ruled by the Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs who raided their headquarters in the winter resort of Pale fired the government-controlled parts of the city that were actually under siege until 1995. According to the Dayton Peace Agreement, all of Sarajevo was to be united under the control of the Bosnian government, which happened in January 1996. most Serbs emigrated from the city, whose population previously consisted of approximately 50% Bosniaks and 30% Serbs and various minorities, including Croats. Sarajevo has thus gained a more Muslim character, among other things. by immigrating refugees from ethnically cleansed Muslim cities such as Srebrenica.