A highly polarized political system, a rampant corruption in the state apparatuses, a massive emigration abroad: these were the elements that continued to characterize the Romania in the years at the turn of the first decade of the 21st century.
After the political crisis of December 2006, determined by the abandonment of the executive by the Conservative Party (PC, Partidul Conservator) due to the corruption investigations in which many ministers were involved and the exit from the National Liberal Party (PNL, Partidul Național) Liberal) of some parliamentarians, who had founded the new Liberal Democratic Party (PLD, Partidul Liberal Democrat), in April 2007 Prime Minister Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu formed a new coalition government with the PNL and the UDMR (Uniunea Democrată Maghiară din România, Hungarian Democratic Union of Romania), also supported in Parliament by the PSD (Partidul Social Democrat, Social Democratic Party), heir to the Communist Party.
In the political elections of 30 November 2008, following the reform that introduced the single-member system with a threshold of 5%, the PSD obtained 33.1% of the votes (110 seats), followed by the centrist Liberal Democratic Party (PDL, Partidul Democrat-Liberal), in which the PD and the PLD had converged in 2007, with 32.4% (115 seats). GNP took 18.6% (65 seats), while the xenophobic Great Romania Party (PRM, Partidul România Mare) saw a definitive collapse (3.2%). The uncertain electoral outcome led to the formation of a grand coalition government between PDL and PSD, led by Emil Boc (PDL). After the exit of the PSD from the executive (October 2009), Boc created a new minority government with the UDMR, supported by the external support of some deputies of the PSD and the GNP, gathered since March 2010 in the National Union for the progress of Romania (UNPR, Uniunea Națională pentru Progresul României). At the same time, the presidential elections took place, which were won, thanks above all to the votes of Romanians abroad, by the incumbent president Traian Băsescu (PDL).
In 2009, Romania obtained a loan from the IMF (International Monetary Fund), whose clauses included many budget cuts: the Boc government therefore approved an increase in the retirement age, a reduction of a quarter of public salaries, numerous cuts in guarantees. and many privatizations, causing strikes and protests across the country. Much criticized was President Băsescu who had negotiated the loan and its terms.
In early 2012, an uninterrupted month of demonstrations against rampant corruption and austerity measures forced Boc to resign. After a transitional government, Victor Ponta (PSD) became Prime Minister in April, leading the Social-Liberal Union (USL, Uniunea Social Liberală) coalition, made up of PSD, PNL and PC. To strengthen his power and limit those of Băsescu (particularly active in the fight against corruption), the premier had Parliament vote on a suspension for 30 days of the President of the Republic, accused of interfering in the powers of the government and of having led the country to the economic meltdown. As had already happened in 2007, the referendum on his impeachment (July 2012) did not reach of whom Băsescu has been restored.
The elections of December 2012 sanctioned the large victory (58.6%, 273 seats) of the USL, while the opposing coalition, made up of the PDL and two minor parties, stopped at 16.5% (56 seats): thus it was born a new government also led by Victor Ponta. Given as a favorite, the premier ran for presidential elections in November 2014, but was surprisingly defeated by Klaus Iohannis (PNL), a Protestant and representative of the country’s German minority. In fact, Ponta, in the role of prime minister, had attracted the antipathies of the numerous Romanians abroad, who in the first round had not been able to vote due to the few seats available.
On the level of foreign policy, the Romania directed its attention mainly to the geopolitical area of the Black Sea.
In 2008 he managed to launch the Black Sea Strategy, an initiative that had the aim of extending cooperation between the countries bordering it and between them and the European Union, of which Romania had joined in 2007. Yes they also strengthened relations with Moldova, where a large Romanian ethnic minority lived.