Travel climate in Indonesia
Due to its geographical location on both sides of the equator, Indonesia has an extremely tropical climate with monsoon winds, which bring a dry climate with little rain from June to September and humid air masses and a lot of precipitation from December to March. The northern islands of the Indonesian archipelago such as Borneo, Sumatra, Papua and the Moluccas are characterized by an ever-humid tropical climate with constant temperatures. With mean daytime temperatures of 25 ° C to 27 ° C and a relative humidity of 95%, it is tropical and humid. The amount of precipitation is between 2000 mm and 4000 mm per year.
The climate on Java, the Lesser Sunda Islands and the Aru Islands, on the other hand, is mainly determined by the monsoon. It ensures consistently high daytime temperatures, which can drop by as much as 12 ° C at night. The dry air of the northeast monsoon causes a dry season (winter monsoon) in which the trees shed their leaves and go through a kind of rest phase in which light, green forests with a pronounced layer of herbs (monsoon forests) arise. The southwest monsoon, on the other hand, absorbs moisture over the warm sea and leads to high precipitation over the mainland, which can reach up to 50 mm during the day and often lead to flooding.
Cities and regions in Indonesia
According to militarynous, the island nation of Indonesia is currently administered in 31 provinces as well as two special regions and the capital district Jakarta, which in turn are divided into 501 administrative districts. However, restructuring of this division is in progress or in the planning stage.
For travelers in Indonesia, however, the various island regions are more important than the administrative division. Then the Indonesian archipelago is divided into the main islands:
- Java – the center of the country, with the capital Jakarta and other megacities the most densely populated part of the archipelago.
- The tourist stronghold Bali, probably the most famous island for most package tourists.
- The wild and rugged Sumatra – the sixth largest island in the world has a magnificent, but strongly threatened natural wealth.
- The Indonesian part of Borneo, called Kalimantan – unmapped jungle, mighty rivers, settlement area for orangutans and a paradise for adventurers.
- Sulawesi – the island is geographically very elongated and is home to various forms of society and a spectacular landscape.
- Lesser Sunda Islands (Flores · Lombok · Komodo · Timor) – the archipelago in southeast Indonesia, largely undiscovered and almost unknown to the outside world, is inhabited by a large number of ethnic groups.
- Moluccas – the former spice islands of the Portuguese
- Western New Guinea – the Indonesian part of New Guinea with the highest mountain in Indonesia, the 4884 m high Puncak Jaya.
The largest and most important city in Indonesia is the capital Jakarta, which is the commercial and financial center. Other important cities are Surabaya, Medan and Bandung.
Over 10 million people of Malay, Arab, Indian, Dutch and Chinese descent live in the capital of Indonesia. It is the largest city in Southeast Asia and with over 34 million residents in the surrounding area, it is also the second largest metropolitan area. Jakarta is the country’s political, economic and cultural center as well as a transport hub with universities, colleges, theaters and museums. There are still numerous historical buildings from the colonial era, in particular on the Great Canal and Independence Square. Chinatown with the old Chinese quarter Glodok is also worth seeing. There are numerous mosques and church buildings spread across the city. Due to the existing earthquake and flooding risks, there are considerations to relocate the capital of Indonesia to Borneo.
After Jakarta, Surabaya is the second largest city in Indonesia with almost 3 million residents of various ethnic groups. The port city has large shipyards and numerous specialized schools in the field of nautical training. It is also the base of the Indonesian Navy.
The third largest city in Indonesia with over 2 million residents spreads out on a coastal plain in the northeast of the island of Sumatra. The important seaport Belawan is located on the coast or the sea route of Malacca, while the city center is about 20 km inland. Some buildings in the Dutch colonial style have been preserved in the city, such as the old town hall, the post office and the Tirtanadi water tower. In and around Jl. Ahmad Yani there are a large number of interesting commercial buildings in Art Deco and Art Nouveau, some of which, however, are still in an unrestored condition. The Maimun Palace (Istana Maimun) was built in the years 1887-1891, while the last ruling sultan of Deli was still alive. The Great Mosque (Masjid Raya) was built in 1906 in the Moroccan style by the Dutch architect Dingemans. The Orangutan Rehabilitation Center is located in Bukit Lawang, on the edge of the Gunung Leuser National Park, about 70 km from the city.
The provincial capital of West Java has approx. 2.5 million residents and is also called the city of flowers. A number of technical universities are located in Bandung. The city has an inventory of tropical Art Deco architecture from the 1920s. The most important Art Deco buildings in the city are the Villa Isola, the Grand Hotel Preanger and the Savoy Homann Bidakara Hotel; there are also other buildings of this architectural style that are well worth seeing.