Bosnia and Herzegovina. The six Western Balkan countries
(Bosnia and Herzegovina, Albania, Kosovo, Macedonia,
Montenegro and Serbia), not yet members of the EU, met in
May at a summit in Brussels. However, only Montenegro and
Serbia are currently holding formal EU negotiations.
According to EU Foreign Minister Federica Mogherini, it is
of great importance that the other countries should be
closer to the EU, not least for security policy reasons.
A few weeks later, the foreign ministers from Bosnia and
Herzegovina, Albania, Kosovo, Macedonia and Serbia gathered
in Stockholm for a seminar on the EU integration of the
At the end of June, a verdict in the Netherlands caused a
great upset in Bosnia and Herzegovina. According to
Countryaah.com, the Court had ruled
that the Netherlands was only partially responsible for the
Srebrenica massacre in 1995. The Dutch peacekeeping forces
were charged with protecting the civilian population but did
not provide sufficient protection for the 8,000 Muslim boys
and men killed by Bosnian forces. According to the judgment,
the Dutch state must pay damages to 350 families, which is
insufficient according to the Srebrenica's mothers
organization. “The verdict is shameful. We will not accept
it, ”said Munira Subašić, leader of the organization.
Ljubiša Beara, security commander of the Bosnian Serb
army staff during the civil war in the mid-1990s, died in
February in a German prison. He was convicted in 2010 by the
Tribunal in The Hague for, among other things, genocide when
he participated in the massacre in Srebrenica.
Finally, in August, the Russian Federation paid its debt
to former Yugoslavia. The money, equivalent to SEK 565
million, was lent out in connection with the collapse of the
Soviet Union in 1991 and repaid to Bosnia and Herzegovina on
August 8. The total now amounted to just over SEK 1 billion.
In late November, Bosnian Serb army leader Ratko Mladić
got his verdict before the War Criminal Tribunal in The
Hague (ICTY). He was sentenced to life in prison for crimes
against humanity, genocide and war crimes, including the
Srebrenica massacre (1995) and the four-year siege of
Sarajevo (from 1992). Mladić was arrested in Serbia in May
2011 on a farm north of Belgrade under his name. One week
later, the same court ordered Slobodan Praljak's 20-year
prison sentence for, among other things. war crimes against
Bosniaks 1992–95. Praljak took poison (cyanide) before the
tribunal and died shortly thereafter.
Sarajevo, capital (since 1945) of Bosnia and Herzegovina located on both
sides of the Milačka River; 311,000 residents (2011). Since the 1992-95 war,
many Croats and most Serbs have moved, while many Bosniaks have immigrated.
The town is situated at an altitude of 530-700 m, surrounded by mountains.
Trebević (1629 m) and Ozren. It consists of an Oriental district and a growing
modern part. Prior to the Bosnian-Serbian siege and the almost daily, massive
bombing of 1992-95, it was the railway hub with the metallurgical, cement,
textile, food and automotive industries. Since 1995, extensive reconstruction
has been underway. The city, which has a tradition of making rugs and filigree,
once again houses a university, a music academy, several museums and colleges.
Sarajevo is the seat of the country's parliament and of the country's Muslim
congregation, the Orthodox metropolitan and the Catholic archbishop.
Originally there was a castle occupied by the Ottomans in 1428. Sarajevo
developed during Ottoman times into the most important city in Bosnia, although
the governor was usually located in Travnik. During the Austro-Hungarian
occupation 1878-1918, the city was the seat of government, and this is where the
Austro-Hungarian heir to the throne Francis Ferdinand was assassinated by a
Serbian student 06.28.1914, the event that triggered World War 1. As host of the
1984 Winter Olympics, it gained a boost and became a leading winter sports
The city was hit hard by the war between Serbs, Croats and Bosniaks. It was
divided into a central part under the control of the Bosnian government, while
some Serbs and suburbs were ruled by the Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs who raided
their headquarters in the winter resort of Pale fired the government-controlled
parts of the city that were actually under siege until 1995. According to the
Dayton Peace Agreement, all of Sarajevo was to be united under the control of
the Bosnian government, which happened in January 1996. most Serbs emigrated
from the city, whose population previously consisted of approximately 50% Bosniaks and
30% Serbs and various minorities, including Croats. Sarajevo has thus gained a
more Muslim character, among other things. by immigrating refugees from
ethnically cleansed Muslim cities such as Srebrenica.